ANATOMY
BONES OF THE BODY
COMMON NAME
BONE
Skull
Cranium
Jaw
Mandible
Collar Bone
Clavicle
Shoulder Blade
Scapula
Breast Bone
Sternum
Ribs
12 pairs, 7 joined to sternum, 3 joined by cartilage, and 2 floating.
Spine
33 Vertebrae 7 Cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar, 5 fused Sacral, 4 fused Coccyx.
Upper Arm
Humorous
Lower Arm (2 bones)
Radius (Large) Ulna (Small).
Wrist
Carpals
Hand
Metacarpals.
Fingers
Phalanges.
Pelvis
Pelvis
Thigh
Femur
Knee
Patella
Lower leg (2 bones)
Tibia (Shin) Fibula (Small)
Ankle
Tarsals
Foot
Metatarsals
Toes
Phlanges
ORGANS OF THE BODY
ORGAN
FUNCTION
Brain
It is the control centre. Controls every activity of the body. It is part of the nervous system.
Heart
The heart is made of muscle approx. the size of a clenched fist. It is divided into four sections. The left and right atrium, and the left and right ventricle. Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium passed to the right ventricle where it is pumped to the lungs, via the pulmonary artery for oxygenating, Oxygenated blood enters the left atrium passes to the left ventricle is then pumped around the body, via the aorta artery.
Lung
Lungs lie either side of the heart. Air enters through the mouth and travels down the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. At the end of the bronchioles air collects in air sacs called the alveoli, where it is dispersed into the blood through a thin membrane. Oxygen is absorbed via the body cells, Carbon dioxide, contain the waste product, then leaves the blood and is then expelled via the mouth.
Liver
The liver is the largest organ in the body. It is a gland, which lies on the top right hand side of the abdomen, under the ribs. The liver helps digest food, and keeps the blood clean. Bile is made in the liver and passed into the intestine to breakdown food. The liver also takes in, and re-uses, nutrients from the blood. Poisons are then destroyed by the liver. It makes excess sugars into fat.
Kidneys
There are two kidneys, they lie at on each side of the spine at the back of the abdomen. They filter the blood to keep it clean, also removing water and waste for disposal as urine.
Stomach
The stomach is an organ in the upper abdomen. Food is passed to the stomach from the oesophagus. Strong muscles mash up the food, while acids break up the food, prior to passing into the intestines for digestion.
Pancreas
The pancreas is a gland approx. 12 cm long joined to the small intestine. Juices from the pancreas help digest the food. It also produces insulin, which controls the level of sugar in the blood. To much sugar in the blood absorbs to much water from the body.
Spleen
Is an organ in the abdomen, which lies under the ribs on the left side. The spleen stores blood which can be used if there is a sudden loss of blood. It also makes the white blood cells used to defend the body from disease.
Bladder
Holds liquid waste, passed from the kidneys, prior to expelling it from the body
Bowel
Gall Bladder
The gall bladder sits just below the liver. It stores bile prior to passing it to the intestines to assist in digestion.
Appendicitis
Is joined to the large intestine, it now is redundant.
GLANDS
Thyroid
Is an organ in the neck situated around the front and sides of the trachea just below the larynx. The thyroid releases hormones into the blood which affects all the cells in the body. These hormones control how quickly the body burns up energy. The metabolic rate.
Pituitary
Is joined to the base of the brain. It controls eating, drinking, and body heat. It also releases growth hormone.
Adrenal
There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. Adrenaline is produce in response to stress, increasing the heat beat. They help to control the level of glucose in the blood stream.
Parathyroid
Is one of four small organs in the neck. There are two each side of the thyroid gland in the front of the neck. It releases a hormone that controls the level of calcium in the blood.
MUSCLES/TENDONS
NAME
LOCATION
Deltoid
Front shoulder
Pectorals
Chest
Trapezius
Back shoulders down back
Biceps
Front upper arm
Triceps
Back upper arm
Abdominal
Stomach muscles
Obliques
Side of abdominal
Gluteals
Bum
Hamstrings
Rear upper leg
Quadriceps
Front upper leg
Gastrocnemius
Calf
BLOOD
Blood is pumped around the body by the heart. Blood transports food and oxygen to all living cells in the body, and takes away waste matter from them.
Blood consists mainly of a watery liquid called plasma. Red cells, white cells and platelets float in the plasma. The disc-shaped red blood cells take oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. White blood cells help to fight infection by attacking harmful bacteria. Small particles called platelets are important for blood clotting. There are approx. 500 red cells to each white one.
BLOOD MARROW
Blood is made in the bone marrow. A red blood cell lives for about 120 days after it enters the bloodstream. When blood dies, the cells are disposed of by the liver and the spleen. The bone marrow continuously makes new blood cells to replace the dead cells.
NERVOUS SYSTEM
The nervous system is a network of nerve cells called neurones, that send information to and from all parts of the body. The brain, brain stem, and spinal cord are the central parts of the nervous system. Messages, or nervous impulses, travel along nerves that connect the brain to the rest of the body.
BRAIN PARTS AND FUNCTIONS
The brain is the control centre of the body, through the nervous centre it controls every function of the body. It has four main parts:
a. Medulla Oblongata - (Brain stem) controls the involuntary systems such as breathing, circulation, and heart beat.
b. Pons Varolii - Connects the other three parts together.
c. Cerebellum - (little brain) Controls body movements, posture, and balance.
d. Cerebrum - (fore brain) It is the largest part of the brain. It is made up of two half circles (hemispheres) and controls the senses, nervous system, reading, thought, memory etc.
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